list of british colonies

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Right now, Hong Kong is a special administrative region (SAR) of China, but that will change in 2047, when China will likely take complete control of the region. It has been accepted by FIFA and went into the 2018 FIFA World Cup qualifying, where they achieved 0 points. Bermuda, the British Virgin Islands and the Cayman Islands are the only British Overseas Territories with recognised National Olympic Committees (NOCs); the British Olympic Association is recognised as the appropriate NOC for athletes from the other territories, and thus athletes who hold a British passport are eligible to represent Great Britain at the Olympic Games. Below are lists of the countries and territories formerly ruled or administered by the United Kingdom or part of the British Empire, with their independence days.Some countries did not gain their independence on a single date, therefore the latest day of independence is shown with a … Collectively, the Territories encompass a population of about 250,000 people[31] and a land area of about 1,700,000 square kilometres (660,000 sq mi). The Governor is the head of government and leads the Executive Council, consisting of appointed members made up from the Legislative Council and two, These territories have a House of Assembly, Legislative Assembly (Cayman Islands and Montserrat), with political parties. Gibraltar was the only overseas territory that was part of the EU, although it was not part of the European Customs Union, the European Tax Policy, the European Statistics Zone or the Common Agriculture Policy. It controlled over one fourth of the planet’s population. India was a colony of Britain from 1858 to 1947. [65] In 1983, CUKC status of residents of overseas territories without the right of abode in the UK was replaced by British Dependent Territories citizenship (BDTC) in the newly minted British Nationality Act 1981, a status that does not come with it the right of abode in the UK or any overseas territory. Today, the US is not governed by the UK, and Canada is a sovereign nation but a constitutional monarchy with the Queen of Canada (Queen Elizabeth) as the head of state. Historians debate exactly how this happened. Australia (1788 – 1911) In territories without a permanent population, a Commissioner is usually appointed to represent the Queen. Beyond that were the Outer Colonies. By Victoria Simpson on September 8 2020 in World Facts. When colonial flags were introduced in 1869 few colonies had arms. Only the latter grants the right of abode in a specific country or territory, namely, the United Kingdom proper which includes its three Crown Dependencies. In 1842, this temporary set up became a permanent deal with the Treaty of Nanjing. [1][2] They are remnants of the British Empire and do not form part of the United Kingdom itself. Today, Hong Kong is governed under the “one country, two systems” relationship. Akrotiri and Dhekelia and Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha are the only British overseas territories without their own flag, though Saint Helena, Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha have their own individual flags. The territories are members of the Commonwealth of Nations through the United Kingdom. Prior to 1 January 1983, the territories were officially referred to as British Crown Colonies. Facts about British Colonialism tell you about the colonialism conducted by British people. Who will be next? In 1578, Elizabeth I granted a patent to Humphrey Gilbert for discovery and overseas exploration. [45], All the overseas territories have their own system of government, and localised laws. Commemorative UK Pounds and Stamps issued in GBP have been issued. The first of the Navigation Acts existed for almost two centuries and was repealed in 1849. 1 Part of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. While the New England colonies were made up largely of British Puritans, the Middle Colonies were very mixed. Three are inhabited only by a transitory population of military or scientific personnel. Both Canada and the United States have areas in them that were once British colonies. The governments in both London and territories occasionally meet to mitigate or resolve disagreements over the process of governance in the territories and levels of autonomy.[59]. But now, needing funds, Great Britain turned to a policy of stringent taxation, which the colonies opposed. The Pitcairn sexual assault trial of 2004 is an example of how the UK may choose to provide the legal framework for particular cases where the territory cannot do so alone. Other colonies were established even further - Coral, at 42 light-years; and Madrigal, the most distant known colony, which lay in the 23 Librae system, 83.7 light-years from Earth. Responsibility for protection of biodiversity and meeting obligations under international environmental conventions is shared between the UK Government and the local governments of the territories. This list may not reflect recent changes ( learn more ). … Each overseas territory has been granted its own flag and coat of arms by the British monarch. One of the last British colonies to gain its independence was Zimbabwe in 1980. The first, unofficial, colony was Newfoundland, where English fishermen routinely set up seasonal camps in the 16th century. The British Empire once comprised a large assortment of colonies and protectorates around the world, populated by a wide range of native peoples, colonists from more advanced nations, and imported workers from other parts of the Empire. A territory may issue belonger status to allow a person to reside in the territory that they have close links with. The Navigation Acts were trade rules that governed commerce between Britain and its colonies. Pound sterling (de jure)[76][77]. North America Northern and Central America Britain. Administration and policy changed during the century from the haphazard arrangements of the 17th and 18th centuries to the sophisticated system characteristic of Joseph Chamberlain’s tenure (1895–1900) in the Colonial Office. During the First Opium War between China and Britain in 1839, China temporarily gave Hong Kong Island over to the British. The British Overseas Territories have more biodiversity than the entire UK mainland. Most of the languages other than English spoken in the territories contain a large degree of English, either as a root language, or in codeswitching, e.g. It retains strong cultural ties with Britain. These and other large self-governing colonies had become known as Dominions by the 1920s. [87][88][89], In January 2016, the UK government announced the intention to create a marine protected area around Ascension Island. [3][better source needed], As of April 2018[update], three Territories (the Falkland Islands, Gibraltar and the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia in Cyprus) are the responsibility of the Minister of State for Europe and the Americas; the Minister responsible for the remaining Territories is the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for the Overseas Territories and Sustainable Development. List of Former British Dominions, Colonies, Protectorates, Protected and Associated States, Mandated and Trust Territories. The head of state in the overseas territories is the British monarch, Elizabeth II. Once upon a time … British West Africa (1821-1850,1866-1888) British Western Pacific Territories (1877-1976) An empire is a group of colonies that are ruled by a single power, and while Britain itself has always been quite small in land mass and located far away from many of the places it has governed, it somehow succeeded in growing the largest empire in history. only Montserrat and Saint Helena receive budgetary aid (i.e. This restored the right of abode in the UK to residents of overseas territories after a 34-year hiatus from 1968 to 2002. Euro (accepted unofficially in most establishments) After the independence of Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) in Africa in 1980 and British Honduras (now Belize) in Central America in 1981, the last major colony that remained was Hong Kong, with a population of over 5 million. The growth of the British Empire in the 19th century, to its territorial peak in the 1920s, saw Britain acquire nearly one quarter of the world's land mass, including territories with large indigenous populations in Asia and Africa. [78], Shara Proctor from Anguilla, Delano Williams from the Turks and Caicos Islands, Jenaya Wade-Fray from Bermuda[79] and Georgina Cassar from Gibraltar strived to represent Team GB at the London 2012 Olympics. In doing so, this presence grew to be more than just an element of commerce. These were all places Britain wanted to dominate for access to goods such as rubber, salt, gold, ivory, and other natural products. The Legendary Pitcairn Islands", "St Helena, Ascension, Tristan da Cunha profiles", "South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands", "Population of Grytviken, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands", "Turks and Caicos Islands Population 2019", "Global Britain and the British Overseas Territories: Resetting the relationship", "Government – Isle of Man Public Services", "Newfoundland History – Early Colonization and Settlement of Newfoundland", "In the Eye of All Trade: Bermuda, Bermudians, and the Maritime Atlantic World, 1680-1783", "House of Commons - Foreign Affairs - Seventh Report", "Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Constitution Order 2009 (at OPSI)", "LibGuides: United Kingdom Legal Research: British External Territories", "Overseas Territories Joint Ministerial Council 2015 Communique and Progress Report - Publications - GOV.UK", "Britain and the British Antarctic Territory in the wider geopolitics of the Antarctic and the Southern Ocean", "The Overseas Territories: security, success and sustainability", British financial officials in the region for talks with dependent territories, "MP proposes British Overseas Territories be represented in Westminster – MercoPress", "Lib Dems would create an MP for Gibraltar", "UKIP leader defends call for Gibraltar to become part of Britain - Xinhua -", "UK Government White Paper on Overseas Territories, June, 2012. Canada’s road to independence has been long and winding. The nations conquered were linked in trade as well as in politics, and this lasted for quite a while. This reclassified the UK's dependent territories as overseas territories and, with the exception of those people solely connected with the Sovereign Base Areas of Cyprus, restored full British citizenship to their inhabitants.[44]. The British Antarctic Territory is a section of the Antarctic under the jurisdiction of the UK. [43] With 1997 approaching, the United Kingdom and China negotiated the Sino-British Joint Declaration, which led to the whole of Hong Kong becoming a "special administrative region" of China in 1997, subject to various conditions intended to guarantee the preservation of Hong Kong's capitalist economy and its way of life under British rule for at least 50 years after the handover. The colonialism began in the end of 16th and 18th century when England had the trading post and overseas possessions. The end of an era, which began in the 16th century, finally came around in 1997 when Hong Kong, one of the empire’s most prominent territories, was transferred back to China. Proctor, Wade-Fray and Cassar qualified for Team GB, with Williams missing the cut, however wishing to represent the UK in 2016.[80][81]. [53], Historically the Secretary of State for the Colonies and the Colonial Office were responsible for overseeing all British Colonies, but today the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) has the responsibility of looking after the interests of all overseas territories except the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, which comes under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Defence. Pound sterling (widely circulated and accepted universally) While various countries gained their independence over time, even by 1952 when Queen Elizabeth took the throne, over 70 colonies still existed in the empire overseas. United States dollar (widely circulated and accepted universally), Cayman Islands dollar (pegged to US dollar at 1KYD=1.2USD), New Zealand dollar In the British colonies, as elsewhere, religious missions were instrumental in introducing European-style education. The OCT Association also provided overseas territories with structural funding for regeneration projects. The British Overseas Territories generally look after their own policing matters and have their own police forces. The British Empire is famous for spreading itself to almost every corner of the globe. Province of Quebec See also: United Kingdom; Colonial flags; British Empire Flags and Patriotic Decorations. This was done with the 1841 Convention of Chuenpi. Lower Canada. Individual overseas territories have legislative independence over immigration, and consequently, BOTC status does not automatically grant the right of abode in any of the territories, as it depends on the territory's immigration laws. The watermark - Either Multiple Crown CA or Multiple Script CA. In addition, there are 14 overseas territories of Britain that are remnants of former British colonies. The British Empire was the largest of its kind in history, and once covered about one quarter of all the land on Earth. Euro (accepted unofficially in most establishments), Saint Helenian pound (parity with pound sterling) Most of the permanently inhabited territories are internally self-governing, with the UK retaining responsibility for defence and foreign relations. They can be in the form of colonies where UK administered them. Some territories maintain diplomatic officers in nearby countries for trade and immigration purposes. The Commissioner, supported by an Administrator, runs the affairs of the territory. This list compiles the top 10 British colonies in terms of their economies and the benefits that the Britons derived from them. Early colonies, in the sense of English subjects residing in lands hitherto outside the control of the English government, were generally known as "Plantations". 1651 Navigation Acts. They all have the British monarch as head of state. [90], A Stoplight Parrotfish in Princess Alexandra Land and Sea National Park, Providenciales, Turks and Caicos Islands, Click on a coloured area to see an article about English in that country or region, Territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom, "BOTs" redirects here. Currently[when?] It remains to be seen if any one power will again dominate over such a large portion of the globe, but history does have a tendency to repeat itself. The role of the Governor is to act as the de facto head of state, and they are usually responsible for appointing the head of government, and senior political positions in the territory. The Governor is also responsible for liaising with the UK Government, and carrying out any ceremonial duties. The structure of the government appears to be closely correlated to the size and political development of the territory. Some colonies became Commonwealth realms, retaining the British monarch as their own head of state. The governors of the territories may also allow naturalization of non-BOTCs as BOTCs. [86], The three regions of biodiversity hotspots situated in the British Overseas Territories are the Caribbean Islands, the Mediterranean Basin and the Oceania ecozone in the Pacific. Bahamian dollar (accepted unofficially in the Turks and Caicos Islands), Eastern Caribbean dollar (pegged to US dollar at 2.7ECD=1USD), Bermudian dollar (parity with US dollar) The British Empire is famous for spreading itself to almost every corner of the globe. [45] The Queen appoints a representative in each territory to exercise her executive power. Several of the territories in the Americas maintain membership within the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States, the Caribbean Community, the Caribbean Development Bank, Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency, and the Association of Caribbean States. The act made the trade in slaves from Africa to the British colonies illegal. Exceptionally, in the oversea territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, an Administrator is appointed to be the Governor's representative in each of the two distant parts of the territory, namely Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha. The British Empire was the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates, and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. The Commander British Forces Cyprus acts as the territory's Administrator, with a Chief Officer responsible for day-to-day running of the civil government. Each territory has its own attorney general, and court system. Ian Hendry and Susan Dickson, "British Overseas Territories Law" (London: Hart Publishing, 2011), Senior British representatives in the constituent protected states, Senior British representatives in the neighbouring Malayan protected states, Senior British representatives in neighbouring protected states, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 09:24. Page 23",, "British Indian Ocean Territory Currency", "Representing Britain...and Bermuda | Bermuda Olympics 2012", "Williams' Olympic hopes on hold for 4 more years", "At last! BAT was formed on March 3, 1962, although the UK claimed it both in 1908 and 1917. Currently (2019) all but two Governors are either career diplomats or have worked in other Civil Service departments. St. George's town, founded in Bermuda in that year, remains the oldest continuously inhabited British settlement in the New World (with some historians stating that – its formation predating the 1619 conversion of "James Fort" into "Jamestown" – St. George's was actually the first successful town the English established in the New World). The Virgin Islands are also called as BVI or British Virgin Islands to differentiate them from the Virgin Islands owned by the U.S. The Currency Act: The Currency Act consisted of several acts, such as the Currency Act of 1751 and … [38] It is now a province of Canada known as Newfoundland and Labrador. Pages in category "Former British colonies" The following 14 pages are in this category, out of 14 total. Many say the British Empire was made possible by conquering the world by sea, investing in a formidable army, and partnering with local people to further its spread. The territory includes three regions which were administered independently as part of the Falkland Islands before 1962. This "benign neglect," as the British statesman Edmund Burke would call it, encouraged mercantile trade between the colonies and the mother country. It grew at a unique time in history, and while it has shrunk considerably since it began, the effects of the empire are felt globally to this day. Britain began colonizing the world back in the 16th century and spread its power through a strong army and by partnering with local authorities to conduct business. [82] There are at least 180 endemic plant species in the overseas territories as opposed to only 12 on the UK mainland. [45], Each overseas territory has its own legal system independent of the United Kingdom. Full British citizenship[64] has been granted to most 'belongers' of overseas territories (mainly since the British Overseas Territories Act 2002). It began with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. As far as possible, there is convergence of laws, The Government consists of an elected Legislative Council. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2020, Gilbert and Ellice Islands (Kiribati and Tuvalu), 1997 (Now a Chinese special administrative region), 1965 (self governing island state in free association with New Zealand), Mandatory Palestine (Israel, Jordanian annexation of the West Bank, Palestine Protectorate), 1860 (now part of Nicaragua and Honduras), 1846 (became a US territory, then a state), 1783 (became a Spanish colony, later a US territory, Province of Nova Scotia (one of the founding provinces of Canada), Province of Quebec (one of the founding provinces of Canada), 1869 (became part of the Canadian confederation), 1963 (became a state of Malaysia, then separated in 1965), Straits Settlements (Singapore, Malaysia, Borneo), 1946 (Separated and passed to other nations), Swan River Colony (Western Australia, state in Australia). British Empire, a worldwide system of dependencies— colonies, protectorates, and other territories—that over a span of some three centuries was brought under the sovereignty of the crown of Great Britain and the administration of the British government. British influence in India has been longlasting, and English is commonly used as a lingua franca in the country. Most countries do not recognise the sovereignty claims of any other country, including Britain's, to Antarctica and its off-shore islands. The British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT) is the subject of a territorial dispute with Mauritius, whose government claim that the separation of the Chagos Archipelago from the rest of British Mauritius in 1965, three years before Mauritius was granted independence from the United Kingdom, was not lawful. [55][56] Within the FCO, the general responsibility for the territories is handled by the Overseas Territories Directorate. In what is now the eastern US, thirteen British colonies were set up during the 17th and 18th centuries. In territories with a permanent population, a Governor is appointed by the Queen on the advice of the British Government. [57], In 2012, the FCO published The Overseas Territories: security, success and sustainability which set out Britain's policy for the Overseas Territories, covering six main areas:[58], Britain and the overseas territories do not have diplomatic representations, although the governments of the overseas territories with indigenous populations all retain a representative office in London. At this time, these included New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and “Canada” which was comprised of Upper and Lower Canada, today the provinces of Ontario and Quebec. Gibraltar was not a member of the European Union in its own right, having had its representation in the European Parliament through its Members from South West England. One of the last major colonies to be given up by Britain was Hong Kong which was given back to China on July 1st 1997. These include maritime commerce, settlement of the continent and of the West Indies, and the projection of naval power via the colony's privateers, among other areas.[39][40]. The British Antarctic Territory has some overlap with territorial claims by both Argentina and Chile. History. These included what are now Kenya, Sudan, Lesotho, Botswana, Northern Somalia, Egypt, Eastern Ghana, Gambia, Niger, and Benin. Here is a brief look at some former British Colonies and how they came to be. The, There is no elected government. That year, Gilbert sailed for the West Indies with the intention of engaging in piracy and establishing a colony in North America, but the expedition was aborted before it had crossed the Atlantic. United States dollar (accepted unofficially in most establishments), Gibraltar pound (parity with pound sterling) For other uses, see, Location of the United Kingdom and the British Overseas Territories, British Overseas Territories Joint Ministerial Council, Articles relating to British overseas territories, Section 5 of British Nationality Act 1983. Phillips Idowu tracked down... in Team GB photo – Olympic News", "About the Biodiversity of the UK Overseas Territories", "Science: UK Overseas Territories: Biodiversity", "Turks and Caicos Islands – UNESCO World Heritage Centre", "Island of St Helena – UNESCO World Heritage Centre", "World's Largest Single Marine Reserve Created in Pacific", "Pitcairn Islands get huge marine reserve", "Pitcairn Islands to get world's largest single marine reserve", "Ascension Island to become marine reserve", Outposts: Journeys to the Surviving Relics of the British Empire, Foreign and Commonwealth Office – UK Overseas Territories, British Overseas Territories Act 2002 – Text of the Act, Governors, civil commissioners, and administrators of British dependencies, Commissioner for the British Antarctic Territory, Commissioner for the British Indian Ocean Territory, Commissioner for South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Governor-General of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Governors of British South African colonies, Lieutenant-Governor of Demerara-Essequibo, Governor of Saint Christopher, Nevis and Anguilla, Governor-in-Chief of the Windward Islands, Governor-General of the West Indies Federation, Governor of Rhode-island and Providence Plantations, High Commissioner for the Federated Malay States, General Adviser to the Government of Johore, High Commissioners for Palestine and Transjordan, High Commissioner for the Western Pacific, Lieutenant Governor of the Swan River Colony, List of countries by English-speaking population, List of countries where English is an official language,, Dependent territories of European countries, 1983 establishments in British Overseas Territories, Articles with dead external links from November 2016, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles lacking reliable references from June 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from April 2018, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2009, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from November 2020, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Vague or ambiguous time from November 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "A people of excellence, moulded by nature, nurtured by God".

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